It’s that time of year when all the leaves have fallen from the trees, the hedgerows are looking bare, and you might be able to spot more small domestic birds as they look for food before winter.
Winter bird feeding is one way to attract wildlife to your garden.
Many small birds have almost become dependent on winter feeding to some degree, as sources of their natural winter food have been reduced through urban development and forestry.
The populations of some species, such as the blue tit, have even increased in urban areas because of winter feeding.
The species that will come to feeders varies from place to place. For example, if you live next to mature forest you may get visits from the forest specialists, such as the willow tit, whereas you can expect to see great tits almost anywhere in Finland.
Before putting up feeders at your house or apartment, it’s important to check the rules because in some places bird feeding is not allowed.
This gallery of ruska landscapes in Lapland comes from the lens of Espoo-based wildlife photographer Paul Stevens.